All workout causes physical alteration (fatigue) making at the end of the training a generally "less good" state than at the beginning
If the damage is significant it will persist long after the end of the session.
It will then take time for the body to gradually find his "spirits" with a stability of all these functions.
An organization that responds to defend itself against aggression!
During this recovery phase recovery mechanisms will enable to compensate the stress.
Overcompensation is the name given to the restoration of the functional systems of the body when they arrive at a higher level than before exercise level. accordingly: the athlete will be at higher level than before the effort level ... we will go "beyond" the compensation effort of stabilization.
Physical activity is accompanied by a disruption of the organism. This alteration persists well after the end of the year. It was only gradually that the body manages to regain stability of all these functions. If recovery allows, return to equilibrium is accompanied by a strengthening of functional systems involved in the exercise. As if these biological systems have learned to better cope with a possible return of such operating conditions.
Overcompensation is the name given to the restoration of the functional systems of the body at a higher level than before exercise.
A two-stage rockets
Stage 1 :The cumulative fatigue
Training on the principle of overcompensation is carefully positioning a series of sessions that have the effect of causing a strong cumulative fatigue.
The combination of the workload must be large enough to cause stress creating enough of a shock.
However this should be done "under control" not to slip in the "overtraining", it can not catch up with a simple compensation.
The adaptation stage 2:
This is the phase where the body will compensate to recover.
By strongly reducing the trainings and imposing rest to the body, mechanisms of recovery will get under way to compensate for previous efforts.
The goal is to cause a compensation that goes beyond the return to normal is why we speak of "overcompensation".
Again it should be measured.
Certainly we must allow sufficient time for the body to recover and creates physiological adaptations necessary otherwise overtraining is a risk.
However, if the recovery time is too high there is a risk of falling into "under training".
This phenomenon of overcompensation is showing the limits t of the training "by feeling".
Trusting his feelings is good but the risk of waiting the first signs of severe fatigue to stop is too late and then the phenomenon of overcompensation will fall into place wont be activated ..... simply because the dynamics will just be to "save the house ...
Overcompensate is varying his workouts, alternating strong / weak beat time.
Do not go to the eternal alternation two days of training / one day of rest.
Or a training day / one day of rest.
It should surprise your body for advancing.
(much like a couple in life: I'm not going to tell you that the "routine" kills the most united couple ... we must be surprised to maintain long flame!)
Overcompensation depends on two parameters:
> The nature of the work
> The amount of the total workload
In short more the work is important and specific to a sector (or quality: pure speed, endurance, VO2 kinetics, support work of the VMA), more recovery time and amplitude of overcompensation are high.
With a basic principle: to obtain compensation, the exercise must be of sufficient intensity.
The recovery times to aim overcompensation:
12-24 hours for speed drills
24-48 hours for long periods of high %MAS
72-hour endurance exercises (including mobilizing aerobic power)
To go further I recommend works extremely well argued Favre-Juvin (2003), like those of Veronica Billat (2003)
Favre-Juvin A, Flora P, Rousseaux-Bianchi MP
"Clinical Approach overtraining.".
Publisher: Science and Sport
"Physiology and methodology of training. From Theory to Practice".
older version: De Boeck
Consideration of HR variability to assess the levels of fatigue and recovery and program areas of overcompensation
Reminder: This is the unconscious part of the brain (the autonomic nervous system), totally independent of our voluntary control, which manages our recovery and management of our tiredness ...
With watches within the HR variability it is now fairly easy to measure the levels of fatigue and recovery.
Reminder on the variability of heart rate (HRV):
Variability of heart rate (HRV) is the variation of time between beats of the heart over a period of time.
The amplitude of fluctuations in the heart rate of a heartbeat to another so reflects the heart's ability to adjust its pace according to external and internal stresses
Schematically more amplitudes are important, the better the functioning of the autonomic nervous system that manages your heart reacts cope with fatigue.
A tire personal with athletes that have shown with measurement of heart rate variability I manage overcompensation by exploiting this data
Illustrations of overcompensation
The mechanism of overcompensation can set up at three levels:
throughout the year in preparation between two training cycles
throughout the week of the medium term within a microcycle
the same level of the session between two split
Translated and adapted from Alain Roche