<![CDATA[Bespoke Fitness Fit Goals - Articles]]>Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:42:46 -0800Weebly<![CDATA[Fatigue and Hydration]]>Sun, 01 Oct 2017 10:09:43 GMThttp://frederic-gingreau.com/articles/fatigue-and-hydrationPicture
Hydration is a real headache, let's try to understand how it works. I notice in the race that if you wait to be thirsty in hot weather, you will not go far !!

In the course of a race, Trail and any prolonged physical exertion, you will know the effect of "sudolar thermolysis": by evaporation, your body will lose large quantities of water and mineral salts (notably sodium NA +, Cl- and potassium K) without causing a rapid reaction of your brain dehydration lying on you without you being fully aware of it, good when you still have common sense sometimes it happens.

Nevertheless some recent studies show that your body is able to adapt better than some specialists think with the training.

On the other hand, trying to overcome this delay in the onset of thirst can lead to a tendency to over-consumption, leading to an opposite effect, but equally dangerous: hyponatremia! (For dull, sodium concentration in blood plasma (sodium less than 135 mmol / l) lack of sodium being one of the components of salt)!

Dehydration will cause the installation of a state of "hyperosmolar hypovolemia" plasma stuff nearly of sci-fi! I will not go any further.
That causes two reactions in your body:
* A gradual increase in your heart rate despite a steady effort. Dehydration will limit your blood pressure and therefore the influx of blood to the heart. In order to keep the flow of blood to the heart at a sufficient flow, it will increase its pumping frequency. The result: early fatigue.

* A reduction of the sudoral flow and the cutaneous blood flow: this has the consequence of considerably limiting the efficiency of the thermolysis processes which prevents an overheating of our body. The resultant hyperthermia is a major impairment of performance and will increase your dehydration level.
In summary, poor hydration will cause a disruption of your body.

This brings us to consider the heat and moisture for hydration.

The graph , taken from a study by Ely et al. (2007), shows the decline in performance as a function of time put on marathon with different climatic conditions. The WBGT index does not correspond directly to the temperature but incorporates several parameters such as temperature of course, but also moisture, solar radiation, or wind.


What we are interested in is the impact of heat on performance in running. The higher the WBGT index, the warmer the climate. We note that the best marathon runners (around 130-140 minutes) are little touched by the heat. On the contrary, a rider in 3h00 like me can see his performance dropped by more than 10% in difficult conditions.
There is clearly a decrease in marathon performance (vertical axis) whatever the final time. Quite logically, the decline in performance is all the more marked as the conditions are difficult (the WBGT index of 25 corresponds to the most difficult conditions). However, the slowest riders are the most affected by the decline in performance. Thus, the fastest riders do not lose more than 3% compared to their performance in cool weather. On the contrary, a rider who lasts 3 hours in normal time can lose up to 12% in hot weather, over 20 minutes! Establishing a personal best in hot weather is a challenge, I'm afraid that Nice will be disappointing on November 5!

So:
- the slowest runners spend more time exposed to heat.
- the fastest riders are physiologically better adapted (trained) to the heat.

Warm-weather training improves thermoregulation processes, resulting in reduced muscular and cardiovascular work for the same intensity.

The body adapts to limit the effects of heat. Thus, researchers [Buono et al. 2007] measured a decrease in heart rate of 18bpm and 0.6 ° C of body temperature for the same exercise after a 10-day acclimation period in 8 volunteers. The decrease in heart rate would be related to an increase in the volume of blood plasma. Thus, Lorenzo et al. (2010) measured a 6.5% increase in blood plasma after a 10-day acclimation period in 12 cyclists. In addition, performance was improved by 8% in a warm environment (38 degrees), but also by 6% at a cooler temperature (13 degrees), while the control group that continued to train under normal conditions did not given its improved performance.

Acclimation to heat during training also reduces the thresholds for sweating and vasodilatation.
And therefore less salt losses
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<![CDATA[A bit Drained?]]>Sat, 30 Sep 2017 08:37:55 GMThttp://frederic-gingreau.com/articles/a-bit-drained
Many factors can cause fatigue, why not take the time to do a blood test?
Some time it s good to take a rest period in high peak season.
There is no shortage of races, and one voluntarily adds a few more on a program that is often too full. Otherwise, you will go through exhaustion and overtraining.
It can be:
* inadequate training, in relation to excessive workload, by too intense or too close sessions, which alter the tolerance to stress. This fatigue is followed by problems of sleep, appetite, sometimes mood. Neglected, it gradually leads to overtraining.
* an extra-sport cause, by a mentally or physically demanding professional activity which increases the effect, by excessive professional investment at the expense of needed sleep or by stress such as psychological suffering problems.
* an infection that alters the physical capacities, induces fatigue and justifies a sports rest of principle. This period of infectious origin is generally brief and neglects during the most common infections. It can last several weeks for certain viruses such as mononucleosis.
* different dietary mistakes that can also be targeted in the occurrence of deep fatigue.
But I encounter 4 causes frequently:
1. Fatigue and energy deficiency
2. Fatigue and calcium deficiency
3. Fatigue and iron deficiency
4. Fatigue and dehydration

1 / Fatigue and energy deficiency:
An energy deficiency is obviously a source of fatigue, since the amount of energy provided by the diet is no longer sufficient to compensate muscular expenditure. The energy deficit gradually worsens, causing a drop in #performance , and continues until the reserves are depleted. This situation can be encountered when the food intake is inadequate.
This can be seen in long-term training sessions (cycling, running, rowing, swimming ...) carried out with a deficient or absent diet of food or drink. Energy is provided at the beginning of the session by the #glycogen stocks in the muscles and liver, until they gradually deplete, resulting in hypoglycemia, intense fatigue and the feeling of "cut legs". An unbalanced / inadequate supply to the training load may also be the cause. An insufficient energy deficiency can take place over several days, when carbohydrate intake is insufficient, in the form of rations depleted of starches and cereal products.
This error is frequently observed in sports with weight classes and endurance sports. Judo / Boxing / Joker / Drivers .... Not only is the overall energy intake inadequate, but athlete make the mistake of neglecting certain essential foods.
The food balance is no longer respected. Deficiencies are no longer exclusively carbohydrates and energy, but are often added to a generalized deficit of all nutrients.
Since trace element intake is directly dependent on energy intake, the deficiencies associated with minerals and vitamins are almost constant. The same applies to essential fatty acids and certain amino acids whose deficiencies are the consequence of neglect of certain essential #foods in the diet of the #athlete.
This energy deficiency maintains the state of overtraining, not only by the direct physical effects on #fitness due to energy deficiency, but also by the impact on a large number of functions or bodies other than the moving part. This explains the development of sleep disturbances, digestive disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, bone demineralization, changes in hormonal secretions with effects on menstrual cycles in athletes, for example who disappear.

2 / Fatigue and calcium deficiency:
Calcium is one of the most essential minerals in athletes. He is closely involved in the metabolism of the skeleton. It strengthens the bones, prevents the risk of stress fracture, osteoporosis.
It influences the neuromuscular excitability, the conductivity, the contractility of the muscles. Finally, it participates in the permeability of biological membranes (which conditions the exchanges).
Signs of calcium deficiency:
In the short term, it is difficult to identify specific signs of calcium deficiency. The effects are more severe in the long term, with an alteration of the bone mineralization, a factor raising the occurrence of a stress fracture , of delayed growth in sports children.
In the athlete, calcium intake deficit manifests itself in general fatigue, not only during sports, but also in daily life, including a lack of enthusiasm. Stress fatigue, impairment of performance in terms of recovery, coordination and speed are not specific, and remain difficult to detect.
3/ Fatigue and iron deficiency 
The Iron keeps a big place in the diet of the sportsman, to be often involved in the states of fatigue or drop of performance. 
Iron comes in two forms:
Hemorrhagic iron (70%) is involved in the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells, which fixes and transports oxygen from the lungs to the body cells. It thus participates in O2 / CO2 gas exchanges. Iron acts as an oxygen carrier to supply the active muscles, which have an increased need. This involvement in cellular respiration is paramount in endurance activities, to allow a good tolerance in effort. The heme iron also incorporates myoglobin, which corresponds to a reserve of muscular oxygen. 
Non-heme iron (30%) are cell to transport and reserve forms. It also participates in the operation and manufacture of many enzymes with multiple functions, involved in tissue oxygenation, energy metabolism, hormonal regulation, DNA synthesis ....
The metabolism of iron is being done in a closed circuit. The iron used in the manufacture of hemoglobin will be recycled and reused after destruction of the red blood cells. 
Signs of Deficiency:
Iron deficiencies can usually be corrected by simple dietary rules simple! orienting daily diet to iron-rich products. Care must also be taken to reduce the consumption of tea and / or coffee and, conversely, to favor the consumption of vitamin C. 
There is no indication of iron supplementation, without biological evidence of obvious deficiency (ferritinemia less than 35 microGr)!

4/ Fatigue and dehydration
Dehydration causes fatigue and muscle injury. Everyone realizes this, it is a subject that will be detailed in an article very soon.
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<![CDATA[Maryline Nakache Trail Running]]>Sat, 23 Sep 2017 05:56:49 GMThttp://frederic-gingreau.com/articles/maryline-nakache-trail-running
Very Proud, I officialize our collaboration in 2017, another win, 1st place this Sunday 16th at the Trail des Alpes Maritimes on the 45kms.This year was very good, 7 wins. We learned to work together , it ended only on the highest step on podium in 2017 on all the planned races. The challenge Trail 06 is won! 
Next year, we go into the big game , with the French Long Trail Championships, and some Ultra-Trails for bonus. Maryline is looking for sponsorships in equipment and nutrition but also on financial level to assume trips , with her preparation in Nepal in December 2017.
Here are her results this year:
Trail of the Alpes Maritimes 2017
45km / 2700m +
5:21
First Woman

Ultra-Trail Côte d'Azur Mercantour 2017
43.9km / 3475m +
6:38:57
3rd in scratch
1 st Women
671 to l itra

Trail Ubaye Salomon 2017
41.2km / 2600m +
4:43:22
1 st Women
676 in l itra

valbergtrail 2017
47k + 2500m
5:25:11
First Woman
Trail de Grasse 2017
35km / 1400m +
3:58:25
First Woman

Trail Des Balcons D'azur - Mandelieu La Napoule 2017 - TBA
45.9km / 2050m +
5:07:29
1 st Women

Alpin Trail Des Calanques 2017 - Alpin Elite
32.5km / 1825m +
4:37:10
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<![CDATA[Sports Recovery by Dr Olivier Dourthe]]>Sun, 18 Jun 2017 15:03:50 GMThttp://frederic-gingreau.com/articles/sports-recovery-by-dr-olivier-dourthe
The sport practice requires a specific process of your body : the muscular effort. This can be checked very rigorously with our purine bases urinary excretion analysis.
This consists in an acceleration of the usual chemical reactions of your muscles producing energy. 
Then after an athlete's effort, there is another important step : the recovery one marked by a state of fatigue.
In an usual sport practice, a normal rest, hydration and nutrition is enough. This will take a certain time, minutes to days, and even if you are not immediately aware of it, this is as well a very complex metabolic process that is running on in your body.

You can ease this recovering step with some easy tricks :
1. Looking for a good hydration:
Maybe you think you have a good hydration status ?
How to make it obvious ? 
the quickest and easiest test to check a good hydration is looking at your urine :
It shouldn't be too concentrated – meaning a dehydration and that you should drink more water ! – in this case the urine appears dark yellow, shiny, with a little burning feeling during miction. 
At the opposite if the urine is too diluted – this means hyperhydration : no more drinking is recommended – and is a very light yellow and transparent urine.

2. Resuming a good sleep:
The sleep is a very important mean of restoration, then we should consider to look at it very carefully.
Do you wake up with many yawnings and a sensation of lack of sleep hours ?
Then you need to sleep more or your quality of sleep is bad. Check it out in peculiar in analysing what are the general conditions of your sleep.

3. An adapted nutrition:
As stated before the effort is an adaptative process of your cells producing oxidative stress. 
Therefore, a good food with its natural antioxidative properties is required. 
To give an example, one of the most antioxidative natural products is vitamine C. Your need in this powerful vitamine can increase by twenty folds during some sustained efforts  
Fresh organic squeezed orange juice is then recommended as a good mean of recovery.
At a higher sport level, there are the professionals with their sophisticated training plannings and medical staff. At this point I should warn any non professionnal athlete who wants to practice at a high level without a correct medical environnement : this may lead to bad performances and health issues that can be serious and even life-threatening ! WellmedForLife lab can measure the level of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA free radical-induced oxidative lesions.
​Sometimes the non-professional athlete doesn't know that his practice is a high level one : trekking, extreme outdoors conditions, willing always outpassing his capacities , conditions that can be sufficient to get a chronique and harmful fatigue.

Don't forget that during Antiquity, the runner of Marathon died after his race !    
For those athletes and the professionals, the great novelty is nowadays there is an array of very reliable biological urine and blood tests, available at WellMed For Life, to find out the hallmarks of your cells processes governing the sport effort on the short and long term. Then we can see precisely what kind and how is altered in the wrong way these delicate reactions potentially giving some damages to the cells membranes, cytosol or even worse to the genetic material.
Any chronique or long lasting fatigue, decrease in your performance, aged appearance of your face, abnormal rate of sport injuries should warn you and trigger a bio work in order to assess the altered cell processes that yield these signs and define thereafter the correct treatment solution.

Dr Olivier Dourthe is a Medical Doctor specialised in sport medicine, antiage and revitalization in Geneva and Monaco at www.wellmedforlife.com
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<![CDATA[Weight change during Ultra-Trail]]>Wed, 17 May 2017 12:46:20 GMThttp://frederic-gingreau.com/articles/weight-change-during-ultra-trail

Too little information on this subject. Then, as I learn more, I begin to recognize how complicated the issue really is and that I still have a lot to learn since i subscribe to UTMB. So today weight, fluid and electrolyte balance during endurance exercise:
One thing that’s evident is that we’ve got to get beyond the idea that achieving proper fluid and electrolyte balance is simply a matter of replacing the water and electrolytes that are lost in sweat. Furthermore, just following your weight during an event doesn’t give an adequate picture of what might be happening with your blood electrolyte concentrations. 
Weight gain doesn't link to the development of hyponatremia nor does weight loss eliminate the chance of hyponatremia. For instance, in recent studies on long races, it shows runners with weight gain over 4 % who had normal sodium levels. It also saw runners with 5/6% weight loss who were hyponatremic. In fact, I found that most of the study participants developing hyponatremia had lost over 3% of their body weight during the race. 
---So, the weight scale is of no value as a sole measure to estimate electrolyte concentrations.---
What I can say about weight is that maintaining a stable weight during exercise will mean that one is likely to be over-hydrated. 
That’s largely because water is stored with glycogen (about three grams of water for each gram of glycogen, from my old books) so when you utilize glycogen stores during exercise, you are releasing a considerable amount of water into the body. 
Most of that water moves into the blood stream. Assuming you start an event with good glycogen stores and appropriate hydration levels, you should actually lose around 2/3% of your body weight to maintain a stable hydration level. 
If your weight remains constant or increases during exercise, then you are likely taking in too much fluid in.
It's also known that, contrary to conventional wisdom, there is no evidence that weight loss of a few percent impairs performance in ultra trail considering the baseline weight is in the hydrated and carbohydrate-loaded condition. In fact, we’ve seen a direct relationship between running speed and percent body weight loss in recent studies at ultra trail races. 
--- In other words, there is a trend for the faster runners to lose more weight than slower runners ---
Some of the fastest runners have lost 5 to 7 % of their starting body weight by the time they reach the finish line, feeling fine and without medical problems. ( must be well trained and used to it!! )
With this information in mind, imagine a situation where a well-intentioned race medical staff holds and forces a runner to drink because his weight is down 5%. 
The runner drinks a combination of water and energy drinks and his/her weight increases a little at which point he/she is allowed to continue. The concern is that we cannot know if the race medical staff might have just caused the runner to develop dilutional hyponatremia from the forced hydration. 
We certainly wouldn’t want to induce or exacerbate hyponatremia.
The goal should be to maintain body weight during an endurance event, that we are likely to be hyponatremic if we gain much weight, and that we are unlikely to be hyponatremic if we lose weight. 
---In summary, runners need to understand the importance of responsible drinking during long periods of exercise – avoiding dehydration as well as over-hydration. ---
A 2/3% weight loss during long endurance events is appropriate, will generally keep one at normal hydration levels and will not impair performance. Feedback from intermittent monitoring of body weight can help runners achieve this goal of two – three percent weight loss. But, the weight scale cannot be used to define electrolyte status and heavy to put in place at race, and any recommendations regarding fluid and salt intake based on changes in body weight should be provided with caution!
---Nonetheless, it would be appropriate for a runner to increase sodium and fluid intake when weight has decreased by 5% and to reduce sodium and fluid intake when weight is stable or increasing.---
This said, managing this during the race comes with experience and to me drink when you are thirsty , eat when you are hungry is the key. 
This thing to drink before even you feel the need is to me not working as well as delay or forget when tired to drink or eat.
Please any feed back welcome.
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